29 F. maximum temperature observed in the Twin Cities on Friday.

24 F. average high on December 30.

25 F. high on December 30, 2015.


December 31, 1999: It’s a balmy end to the 2nd millennium over Minnesota, with temperatures in the 30s over central and southern Minnesota near midnight.
December 31, 1937: Damage is done by a flood at Grand Marais, while 18 inches of snow is dumped on Grand Portage.
December 31, 1913: New Ulm has its fortieth consecutive day without precipitation.

Farewell to 2016 – A Numbing Start to 2017

Live long enough and you’ll see almost everything. 2016 was a fascinating, vaguely troubling year in the weather department. A 222 day growing season? Typical for northern Texas. There were boats in the water from late March thru early November.

For the first time on record two separate “mega-rain” events, defined as 6 inches or more of rain over 1,000 square miles. Dr. Mark Seeley says that, statewide, 2016 was the 3rd warmest and 2nd wettest year on record for Minnesota. Only 1977 was wetter.

Nationwide it was a year of historic floods from Louisiana & Texas to the Carolinas, Maryland and West Virginia. Historic warming of the arctic in recent months.
The grand experiment continues.

Flurries today give way to 30s New Year’s Day and Monday, when a light mix may slush up a few roads, but I don’t see a heavy accumulation right now.

Next week will be one of the coldest weeks of winter with lows dipping below zero by late week. Not record territory, but models show 1-2 weeks of numbing cold before milder, Pacific breezes kick in the third week of January. Embrace the burn!
Models Agree: Colder Front Coming. The ECMWF (European) is a little colder at night next week, and NOAA’s GFS warms us up a little faster next weekend, but we’re debating details. Yes, it’s going to get cold, not shocking, record-breaking, face-peeling cold – but cold enough for most mere mortals. MSP Meteograms above: WeatherBell.

Two Waves of Arctic Air Coming. Some of the coldest air of the winter drains out of Canada next week, pushing from west to east across the USA. The harshest, subzero air temperatures push across the Rockies and Plains into the Midwest and Great Lakes, but bitter air penetates to the Gulf Coast by late next week. 2-meter GFS temperature outlook: NOAA and Tropicaltidbits.com.
Second Wave May Be Colder. NOAA models are in fairly good agreement showing single digit highs and lows dipping into the -5 to -10F range by late next week. A second surge of arctic air arrives in a little less than 2 weeks; GFS guidance hinting at -17F on January 12. Something to look forward to. Graphic: Aeris Enterprise.

Missing El Nino Right About Now. Wind chills are forecast to dip into the -20F range by Thursday and Friday of next week, cold enough to get your attention.

10-Day Snowfall Potentiall. GFS guidance prints out over 10″ snow for parts of northern Minnesota and the Arrowhead Monday night into Tuesday; a second streak of accumulating snow within 2 weeks from north Texas, Oklahoma and Arkansas into the Mid South, Carolinas and Mid Atlantic region. Big eastern cities may finally have some snow to play in (or whine about) within 2 weeks. Source: Tropicaltidbits.com.
Couple Inches for Brainerd Lakes? Internal models suggest just over 2″ of snow Monday afternoon and evening for the Nisswa area; the atmosphere aloft just mild enough for a mix in the Twin Cities Monday.
Weather and Climate Memories of 2016. Dr. Mark Seeley has a very good recap of a warm and wet year across Minnesota in this week’s installment of Minnesota WeatherTalk:

* Minnesota reported 37 tornadoes in 2016, the first on May 25th in Pope County, and the last on September 9th in Beltrami County. The majority were short-lived and EF-0 rated ( winds 65-85 mph), and there were four storms rated EF-2 (winds 111-135 mph).
* Early planting for Minnesota farmers, followed by a generally favorable growing season with mostly excellent crop yields around the state.
* 2016 was the first year ever to bring two mega-rain events (1000 square miles covered by 6 inches or greater) to the state: one in east-central counties over July 11-12; and one in west-central counties August 10-11. Widespread flash flooding resulted.
* Latest ever autumn killing frost in the Twin Cities on November 18th
* Tied for warmest ever autumn season (September-November) on a statewide basis with 1963.
* Overall on a statewide basis 2016 delivered the 3rd warmest year in history to Minnesota (only 1987 and 2012 were warmer) and the 2nd wettest year (only 1977 was wetter)

Fire Weather Outlook. This seems out-of-character for the last day of the year – critical fire danger from Oklahoma City and Tulsa to Wichita, according to NOAA.
Moderating Temperatures Third Week of January. After mid-month the core of the coldest, subzero air rotates across New England into eastern Canada; more of a moderate, Pacific flow returning to most of the USA. In a little more than 2 weeks you may be able to feel your extremities again.

Northern Lights: What Are They? How Can I See Them? AerisWeather meteorologist Todd Nelson has a good overview of the Aurora Borealis and internet tools you can use to increase the chance of actually seeing the Northern Lights: “If you live at a northern latitude, there’s a chance you’ve been lucky enough to see the Northern Lights, which is also known as aurora. Even if you live in a northern latitude, several factors have to come together for northern light viewing. First of all, what are they? Well, let’s start with our sun. The sun is an interesting ball of hot gaseous material that can often act up and burp charged particles into outer space. If this violent storm is pointed in our direction, these charged particles will ride the solar wind at speeds of more than 7 million miles per hour. When they reach Earth, they interact with the magnetic field and are drawn to both the north and south poles where the magnetic field is weaker allowing those particles to interact with our atmosphere…”
30 Minute Aurora “NowCast”. NOAA’s Space Weather Prediction Center has a model and web page that pinpoints where the aurora will be visible for the next 30-60 minutes; worth checking out to gauge the odds of seeing the Northern Lights: “The OVATION Aurora Forecast Model shows the intensity and location of the aurora predicted for the time shown at the top of the map. This probability forecast is based on current solar wind conditions measured at L1, but using a fixed 30-minute delay time between L1 and Earth. A 30-minute delay corresponds to approximately 800 km/s solar wind speed as might be encountered during geomagnetic storming conditions. In reality, delay times vary from less than 30 minutes to an hour or so for average solar wind conditions…”

Tracking Trends in U.S. Flood Risk. Eos connects the dots: “For 16 consecutive months in 2015 and 2016, Earth’s climate repeatedly broke global temperature records, in keeping with global warming trends observed over the past century and counting. During that period, there were major floods across the United States, including events in Missouri, Texas, Oklahoma, West Virginia, Maryland, and Louisiana. Warmer temperatures are associated with more frequent extreme precipitation events, and they increase the atmosphere’s water-holding capacity, suggesting that flooding across the globe will become more frequent in coming decades. Such an increase would have costly consequences for agriculture, water resources management, ecology, insurance, and transportation and navigation industries, as well as for civilians living in flood-affected areas. In light of this, hydrologists and atmospheric scientists are working to develop a more nuanced understanding of projected flooding changes to accurately communicate risks to the public…”

Photo credit: “Flooding near Houston, Texas, in April 2016.” Credit: Tom Pistillo, USGS
Flood Threats Changing Across U.S. A warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapor, pushing the zone of persistently heavy rains farther north with time. Here’s an excerpt from Iowa Now: “The risk of flooding in the United States is changing regionally, and the reasons could be shifting rainfall patterns and the amount of water in the ground. In a new study, University of Iowa engineers determined that, in general, the threat of flooding is growing in the northern half of the U.S. and declining in the southern half. The American Southwest and West, meanwhile, are experiencing decreasing flood risk. UI engineers Gabriele Villarini and Louise Slater compiled water-height information between 1985 and 2015 from 2,042 stream gauges operated by the U.S. Geological Survey. They then compared the data to satellite information gathered over more than a dozen years by NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission showing “basin wetness,” or the amount of water stored in the ground…”

Map credit: “A University of Iowa study has found that the risk of flooding is changing in the United States, and the changes vary regionally. The threat of moderate flooding is generally increasing in the northern U.S. (red areas) and decreasing in the southern U.S. (blue areas), while some regions remain mostly unchanged (gray areas). The findings come from comparing river heights at 2,042 locations with NASA satellite information showing the amount of water stored in the ground. The study was published in the journal “Geophysical Research Letters.” Image courtesy of the American Geophysical Union.
After a Disaster, Families Rebuild an Even Better House. There are steps you can take to retrofit your home to make it more disaster-resistant. Some require money, others require attention to detail, reports The Wall Street Journal: “…Hurricanes, wildfires, earthquakes, floods. An average of 120 major disasters have struck somewhere in the U.S. every year since 1996, according to the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Catastrophic events can wipe out entire neighborhoods and cost millions of dollars in property damage. But those with the resources and the fortitude to rebuild can end up with an even better house, one that has stronger defenses against acts of nature and is more suited to families’ changed needs…”

Photo credit: “After Jennifer and Ben Deneen’s Houston home was destroyed in a flood, they built this new two-story home in its place.” Photo: Casey Woods for The Wall Street Journal.
From Teletypes to Tornadoes: NWS Veteran Looks Back on 35 Years of Weather. Including a traumatic tornado outbreak in 2011, as reported by AL.com: “…The weather service took a hard look at the events of April 27 and made some changes. “After April 27 we were all challenged. We were stunned. … Why in the world did all these people die when the science was so good?” Spann said. “And Jim really has led the charge with his staff. And he’ll be the first one to say it’s not him, it’s his staff, but you’ve got to have a leader and he’s the leader. “And by going back to basic science they’ve cut the false alarm ratio down to 20 (percent),” Spann said. “I never thought we’d be at 20. It was 80 in 2011. That’s an example of the initiatives he’s brought to the weather service in Birmingham.” Stefkovich said April 27th brought other changes to the weather service as well. “It’s never easy to see the damage, injuries, death and destruction, and it became even that much harder to do so after this event,” he said. “However, it brought our entire staff closer together, to become more determined in saving lives and property, and leading to us now having one of the best severe weather warning programs in the country…”

Photo credit: “Jim Stefkovich has led the Birmingham office of the National Weather Service for more than 11 years. He will retire after 35 years with the weather service on Dec. 30.” (Photo courtesy of Jim Stefkovich),
Staggeringly Beautiful HD Video of Earth from NASA. Gizmodo has the story behind the origin of these amazing video clips: “…It’s been said many times that a person’s perspective on life, the universe, and everything changes after seeing our planet floating in space. Watching this video, it’s easy to understand why. Because NASA is awesome, it has made these video files available for download, which you can access here...”
It Wasn’t Entirely Bad News. Here Are 5 Positive Environmental Stories from 2016. The Washington Post reports: “...At the same time, it’s not all bad news out there. The year saw some clear signs of environmental progress, too. Rare though they were, these five environmental stories were true bright spots:

1) Global carbon emissions appear to have stopped increasing. A picture is beginning to emerge of a world where the increase in emissions of carbon dioxide seems to be flattening, despite countries’ continuing use of fossil fuels. In the United States, emissions are actually going down. Data from the Global Carbon Project suggests that global emissions have not changed for three years straight. Moreover, the cause has not been a global recession — growth has continued. What appears to be happening is a “decoupling” of economic growth from carbon emissions, thanks to more clean energy and other lower-emitting sources of energy like natural gas...”

Photo credit: “Deepwater Wind’s five-turbine project off the coast of Block Island, R.I., the nation’s first offshore wind farm, began operations this fall.” (Michael Dwyer/AP)
The 6 Best Environmental Groups to Donate To For a Better World. Outside Online has the story.

Solar Looks to Outpace Natural Gas and Wind. Scientific American reports: “2016 is shaping up to be a milestone year for energy, and when the final accounting is done, one of the biggest winners is likely to be solar power. For the first time, more electricity-generating capacity from solar power plants is expected to have been built in the U.S. than from natural gas and wind, U.S. Department of Energy data show. Though the final tally won’t be in until March, enough new solar power plants were expected to be built in 2016 to total 9.5 gigawatts of solar power generating capacity, tripling the new solar capacity built in 2015. That’s enough to light up more than 1.8 million homes...”
Smart Robots Could Soon Steal Your Job. The pace of disruption is increasing – no industry is immune from globalization, automation and robotics. Reinvent – or die. Harsh, but that’s the world we’re living in now, as reported by CNN.com: “…Experts are warning that skilled jobs will soon start disappearing because of the rise of artificial intelligence. So far, robots have mainly been replacing manual labor, performing routine and intensive tasks. But smarter machines are putting more skilled professions at risk. Robots are likely to be performing 45% of manufacturing tasks by 2025, versus just 10% today, according to a study by Bank of America. And the rise of artificial intelligence will only accelerate that process as the number of devices connected to the Internet doubles to 50 billion by 2020. By the same year, nearly half of all U.S. jobs will be at high risk of being lost to computers, according to experts at Oxford University, with an additional 20% facing medium risk. Jobs previously thought of as secure and now considered at risk include data analysts and bankers…” (Image credit: Sofia Ordonez, CNN Money).

Five Resolutions to Simplify Your Tech Life. Simplification sounds good – although I suspect it’s impossible. Here’s an excerpt from a worthy New York Times post: “…If you are like most people, there are things you do with tech that could use some tweaking. Strengthening your password security, for one, would benefit you tremendously in an era when hacks are rampant. For another, purging the e-junk you have accumulated over the years would help the environment and your sanity. While you’re at it, start doing maintenance on your electronics to make sure they work smoothly this year. Here are my top recommendations for resolutions to abide by to make tech less frustrating in the new year...”

For Better or Worse: New Books Forecast The Next Technologies. Here’s an excerpt from a New York Times book review: “…But wait. What happens when the 3.5 million Americans who drive trucks for a living and the three million Americans who work on farms get booted from their jobs by Uber-bots? What kind of social safety net might soften the blow of that kind of sudden mass unemployment? What kind of political movement might oppose the rise of a new, monopolistic techno-agricultural power? What are the ecological implications of putting food production in the hands of Silicon Valley tech companies? These are the biggest, most important questions, and the ones on which futurist thinking is most conspicuously absent.

Purify Yourself in the Waters of Lake Minnetonka? Or the Minnesota River at Henderson. That’s where the iconic water scenes in the movie “Purple Rain” were apparently shot, based on intelligence gleaned during our Paisley Park tour yesterday. It was well worth the time and money. Prince was not only a creative genius, but an accomplished businessman. It’s rare to have both skills tied up in one extraordinary person. We were lucky to have him nearby – we miss you Prince Rogers Nelson. Your work continues to inspire.

Check Out “Eagle-Cam”. A couple of bald eagles sitting on a nest in Florida are whipping up a lot of online interest, as reported at NBC News: “…The eagle cam, hosted by a real estate company, has been chronicling Harriet’s nesting seasons since 2012. Then, 16 million people tuned in to watch Harriet and her former mate Ozzie raise two eaglets from their birth to fledge, according to the company’s website. This year, the stream has amassed more than 57,670,000 views so far, according to the site. “We have a PIP in one egg!! The hatching process has begun,” read a post on the eagle cam website Thursday afternoon…”

The Live Camera link is here, courtesy of Dick Pritchett Real Estate. The definition of good advertising!

TODAY: Windy, few flakes in the air. Winds: NW 10-15. High: 25

SATURDAY NIGHT: Partly cloudy and chilly. Low: 19

NEW YEAR’S DAY: Relatively mild start to 2017 with some sunshine. Dry. Winds: S 10-15. High: 36

MONDAY: Sloppy mix, mainly wet roads. Winds: E 10-15. Wake-up: 28. High: 35

TUESDAY: Colder wind, coating of flurries. Winds: NW 15-30+ Wake-up: 18. High: 20 (falling rapidly)

WEDNESDAY: Some sun, feels like -10F. Winds: W 10-15. Wake-up: 3. High: 10

THURSDAY: Partly sunny, slap on another layer. Winds: W 7-12. Wake-up: -4. High: 7

FRIDAY: Bright sun, windchill near -15F. Winds: NW 7-12. Wake-up: -9. High: 5

Climate Stories…

These Are The 10 Most Important Climate Stories of 2016. Climate Central has a good overview of another jaw-dropping year tracking symptoms of a rapidly changing climate system: “…The Arctic was probably the weirdest place on the planet this year. It had a record-low peak for sea ice in the winter and dwindled to its second-lowest extent on record. The Northwest Passage also opened in August, allowing a luxury cruise ship to pass through. Those milestones themselves are a disconcerting harbinger of a warming world, but November brought an even more bizarre event. Normally it’s a time when night blankets the region and temperatures generally plummet to allow the rapid growth of ice. But a veritable heat wave ratcheted temperatures 27°F above normal, hitting pause on ice growth and even causing ice loss for a few days. December has seen a similar warm spell that scientists have found would be virtually impossible if it wasn’t for climate change. The Arctic is the most rapidly warming region on the planet and 2016 served as a reminder that the region is being dramatically reshaped by that warming…”
Former Bush Advisor: Climate Change Threatens National Security. POLITICO has the story; here’s the intro: “Climate change will be one of the top national security issues for the next administration, a former national security adviser to President George W. Bush said Thursday. Stephen Hadley, who served both as deputy and top adviser through Bush’s administration from 2001 to 2009, said climate change has resulted in massive refugee flows that have threatened European unity. “I have not been particularly sensitive to the climate change issue,” he said at a POLITICO Playbook event in Washington. “Climate change and a lot of other economic dislocations have put a lot of people out of work, they are on the move and they have no place to go and it means they are recruiting grounds for terrorists and extremists and potential refugee flows that will tax Europe even more…”

Photo credit: “Stephen Hadley said climate change will be one of the top national security issues for the next administration.” | RODNEY LAMKEY JR. for POLITICO.

Europeans Ask: Where’s The Snow? Ski Resorts Severely Impacted. The Daily Mail Online has a photo essay showing area ski resorts; a lack of snow has left an estimated 45,000 people unemployed. Here’s an excerpt: “…Unusually high temperatures and a lack of snow is threatening the ski season as popular resorts in Europe have completely shut down. Some resorts in France have not seen so much as a snowflake in almost a month, leaving pistes completely bare. An estimated 45,000 workers have been left temporarily unemployed, lifts remain stationary and nobody is skiing on the slopes in the worst-hit areas in Massif Central, The Vosges and The Jura in France as well as Charmey in Switzerland...”

Photo credit: “A closed ski slope in Charmey, Switzerland on Boxing Day where the resort is closed due to the lack of snow.” EPA.

7 Places That Will Change Because of Global Warming in Our Lifetimes. Here’s an excerpt from Bustle: “As we’re selfish creatures, however, it’s often difficult to make clear how intensely bad this is without talking about how it affects us: our cities, our food, our holiday destinations, our ability to stay safe from conflict and natural disaster. The real nature of global warming is, unfortunately, global. And the impacts will be devastating: a study released this year noted that some places will likely see ocean rises of six meters or more as ice sheets collapse and melt, and by 2050 it’s estimated that areas currently inhabited by 150 million people will be either flooding regularly or underwater. That’s a lot of humans with nowhere to go and a lot of land that can’t produce food. We’re headed for a very bumpy ride; here are seven of the places that will be hit particularly hard by global warming in our lifetimes…”

File photo of Miami Beach: Daniel Chudosov, Flickr.

Which Cities Will Climate Change Flood First? Here’s an except from Inverse: “…For some places, the reality of climate change and sea level rise is already here. Climate change was partly to blame for record flooding in Louisiana, Texas and Oklahoma in 2016, and as sea levels rise, we can expect to see a lot more waterlogged areas close to the coast. People around the world, including in the Pacific Ocean and coastal Louisiana, are seeing their land disappear under water and have been forced to relocate. Scientists are predicting a global sea level rise of one to four feet by 2100, while some areas may see even more water thanks to differences in plate tectonics. Other places are are starting to experience more severe flooding, and the future is looking considerably more damp. Here are a few major cities where sea level rise will force us to rewrite maps well before 2100...” (File photo of 2016 Lousiana flooding: Coast Guard).

Fish Seek Cooler Waters, Leaving Some Fishermen’s Nets Empty. Here’s a snippet from a New York Times article: “…Temperature affects fish species differently. “Climate change is going to make it hard on some of those species that are not particularly fond of warm or warming waters,” said Mr. Brown, who is the president of the Rhode Island Commercial Fishermen’s Association, a trade group. “But as the impacts of climate change descend upon us, there are also species that are going to be victorious, hugely victorious.” Yet the changes are happening so fast that regulators will have to adapt quickly if they are to have any hope of keeping up. Marine species, Dr. Manderson said, are moving north at 10 times the rate of animals on land…”

Photo credit: “The fishing industry faces antiquated regulations that have been overtaken by climate change, as warming seas force a variety of fish to seek cooler and deeper waters.” Christopher Capozziello for The New York Times.

Can a Federal Government Scientist in California Convince Trump that Climate Change is Real? Here’s a clip from The Los Angeles Times: “…Santer has responded differently. Although he’s soft-spoken in person, the 61-year-old scientist has become more vocal over the years in hopes of beating back claims that climate change isn’t real. Noticing the grim mood in his office after the election, Santer wrote an essay that he forwarded to friends to post online. “This is not the time for despair,” wrote Santer, who is as meticulous with his words as colleagues say he is with his research. “It’s time for leaving the sidelines and entering the public arena.” Perhaps, he said, incoming officials can still be convinced of the science to which he’s dedicated his life.  “Maybe there are people in the new administration who are willing to sit down and be educated and have a conversation,” Santer said. “I have to hope that there are those people…”

Photo credit: BillMoyers.com.

Exxon Favors a Carbon Tax. The one things business hates more than anything is uncertainty and shifting regulatory hurtles to navigate. Having a tax on carbon just makes sense, according to the VP of Public and Government Affairs for Exxon Mobil, in an Op-Ed at The New York Times: “…Exxon Mobil supports a carbon tax as the best approach for policy makers because it would ensure a uniform and predictable cost of carbon across the economy, allow market forces to drive solutions and maximize transparency to stakeholders. It would also reduce administrative complexity, promote global participation and easily adjust to future developments in climate science and policy consequences. The article suggests that Exxon Mobil “has done little or nothing to help put carbon taxes into effect.” Exxon Mobil executives have repeatedly made clear the company’s position in briefings with members of Congress and in media interviews and other communications...”

The Smoking Gun of Arctic Warmth Leads to a Stunning Indictment. Dan Satterfield reports at AGU Blogosphere: “…It normally takes many months to get a paper through peer review and into a journal, but a group of scientists has released their detection and attribution study early, and it’s a stunning indictment. We now know the culprit for the astonishing Arctic warmth of November and December. It seemed very likely that the guilty party was rising greenhouse gasses with Arctic amplification as the accomplice, and that’s JUST what the evidence shows. It’s overwhelming, and the defendants have no choice but to throw themselves upon the mercy of the court. The analysis shows that even in our present climate that is around a degree warmer than 1900, this heat is unusual, but would happen once every 50-200 years. The odds of it happening in the climate of 1900 are astronomically tiny, however, if we warm another degree, this will be a nearly commonplace event. The study is here, and for those that do not want to read the whole thing here are the conclusions…”

Graphic credit: “High Arctic Temp.s over the past 12 months. The black line is the average from 1981-2010. Red shows above normal temps. Note the incredible warmth all year that goes even to greater extremes in the last two months.”
Military Plans for Climate Change Despite Skeptics. Here’s a clip from Stars and Stripes: “…But the debate is settled at the Pentagon. Rising sea levels and temperatures have forced it to rebuild or move roads, housing, airfields and other vulnerable facilities damaged by mudslides in Hawaii, floods in Virginia, drought in California and thawing permafrost in Alaska. It also has led to a shift in strategic challenges around the world. The Pentagon doesn’t say that climate change alone will cause wars. But the 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review, the Defense Department’s major planning plan for the next four years, calls it an “accelerant of instability” and a “threat multiplier.” “The pressures caused by climate change will influence resource competition while placing additional burdens on economies, societies, and governance institutions around the world,” the document said…”

Photo credit: “The Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, is among a growing number of U.S. military installations threatened by the effects of climate change, a recent report said.” Courtesy of the U.S. Army.
This Republican Holds Out Hope for a Trump Conversion on Climate Change. Here’s an excerpt of a story at PRI, Public Radio International: “…Inglis acknowledges that “many on the environmental left” probably don’t see Tillerson the same way “we do on the eco-right.” But he holds out hope that between Tillerson’s fossil fuel-industry cred and Ivanka Trump’s family ties, incoming President Trump could be turned into “the guy that completes this sentence: ‘Richard Nixon went to China, Bill Clinton signed welfare reform, and Donald Trump did climate change.’ “Because he might just realize,” Inglis says, “that this really is a perfect place for the art of the deal. This is a tailor-made situation for going with an approach that actually is attractive to many progressives as well as rock-solid conservatives — that [through a carbon tax] you just put the cost of the negative effects of burning fossil fuels into the price of the product, then consumers drive demand for innovation...”

Photo credit: “Former US Representative Bob Inglis was awarded the 2015 John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award for changing his position on climate change at big political cost.” Credit: Brian Snyder/Reuters.

Climate Change Driving Birds to Migrate Early, Research Reveals. Not much of a stretch, considering the growing season is increasing with time. Here’s an excerpt from The Guardian: “Migrating birds are responding to the effects of climate change by arriving at their breeding grounds earlier as global temperatures rise, research has found. The University of Edinburgh study, which looked at hundreds of species across five continents, found that birds are reaching their summer breeding grounds on average about one day earlier per degree of increasing global temperature. The main reason birds take flight is changing seasonal temperatures and food availability. The time they reach their summer breeding grounds is significant, because arriving at the wrong time, even by a few days, may cause them to miss out on vital resources such as food and nesting places. This in turn affects the timing of offspring hatching and their chances of survival...” (File photo: Wikipedia).