Relatively Mild, Drama-Free into Second Week of November

40 F. high in the Twin Cities.
51 F. average high for October 31.
50 F. high on October 31, 2013
8.2″ snow on October 31, 1991 as the Halloween Blizzard started up.

October 31 in Minnesota Weather History. Source: Twin Cities National Weather Service:
2000: An F1 tornado touched down on a farm east of Prinsburg in Kandiyohi County destroying a small storage shed. It also tipped another shed on its side, and ripped off a portion of the roof of a third shed.
1999: High winds were reported in central Minnesota. The St. Cloud State University Meteorology Department in Stearns county recorded a 65 mph gust. Morris AWOS in Stevens county, posted a 62 mph gust and Willmar AWOS in Kandiyohi county recorded a 59 mph gust. Area wide sustained winds of 40 mph occurred, with gusts in the 45 to 50 mph range.
1991: Classes were canceled across the state due to the Halloween Blizzard. Three foot drifts across I-94 from the Twin Cities to St. Cloud.

Cool Perspective

Yes, our cold fronts can be annoying, but Minnesota has an abundance of fresh water, no hurricanes, volcanoes or earthquakes to worry about, and far fewer billion dollar disasters than the southern USA.

According to the World Meteorological Organization weather, climate and water-related disasters are on the rise worldwide. From 1970 to 2012 the WMO counted 8,835 disasters, 1.94 million deaths and U.S. $2.4 trillion in losses from cyclones, floods, droughts, temperature extremes and related health epidemics. Those who have the least are most vulnerable to this new level of volatility we’re witnessing, worldwide.

No weather drama close to home anytime soon, just a windy weekend after an early morning freeze. Weak frontal passages kick up a few light (rain) showers Monday and Wednesday. Halloween was about as chilly as it’s going to get looking out into next week. ECMWF (European) guidance is hinting at 4-5 days above 50F next week. I’m betting on at least one more day above 60F.

It’s November and it has yet to snow in the Twin Cities. Last year the first flakes arrived October 19. No snow for deer tracking next weekend, but a stronger cold front arrives in roughly 10 days.

* Graphic above: NOAA NCDC.

** Rising November wildfire risk across Minnesota? Details at The Star Tribune.

Snow! Or Not. Why Snow Is Hard To Forecast. Climate Central takes a look at some of the variables that go into snow predictions, in light of the close call with a nor’easter this weekend along the East Coast. Here’s a clip: “…Some of this has do to inherent limitations. Models are run using current atmospheric conditions, gathered by sampling efforts like weather balloons launched from NWS offices to see what’s happening in the atmosphere at a certain time. But those sampling efforts don’t cover the whole planet, and the Earth’s atmosphere is a large, interacting system — what’s happening on the West Coast today will affect the East Coast a few days later, for example. “If we could sample the entire globe perfectly, we’d have a perfect forecast,” Oraveck said. But meteorologists can’t do that, so they’re left with the imperfect simulations they can get…”

 

* 60-hour accumulated snowfall prediction courtesy of NOAA and HAMweather.

Top Allergy Cities in America? Dr. Mark Seeley included this interesting nugget in his weekly Minnesota Weathertalk Newsletter; here’s an excerpt: “… The top three allergy cities in America this autumn season are Louisville, KY (score 100), Wichita, KS (score 95.76), and Oklahoma City, OK (score 92.00). Minneapolis ranks 35th this autumn with a score of just 66.96. Last year Minneapolis ranked 37th highest. Among upper Midwestern cities this autumn, both Des Moines, IA and Madison, WI have higher scores than Minneapolis. So I guess we should feel good about that…”

Our Failing Weather Infrastructure. Something to truly worry about, or just part of the challenge of running a big weather service with a lot of moving parts? Here’s the intro to an Op-Ed at The New York Times: “Last week the National Weather Service’s satellite network crashed, leaving forecasters without crucial data as a large nor’easter swirled across the East Coast, dumping record levels of rain and leaving thousands of residents without power.This network shutdown was the latest in a string of failures that has left the agency unable to meet the needs of the nation. Earlier this year, the service’s website collapsed under the weight of data requests from a single Android app…”

Severe Flooding Hits Western Norway. The flooding has been extensive, even historic in several areas, as Norway’s The Local reports: “…Kronen said: “The situation is far from being under control. The houses being taken by the river will soon come to a closed off bridge south in Odda, and we are paying close attention to the situation together with the army and the fire department…”

 

Photo credit above: “A house on the River Opo, Odda, during the recent floods.” Photo: Marit Hommedal/NTB scanpix.

Warmest UK Halloween On Record. Britain’s BBC has the story – here’s a clip: “…A temperature of 23.5C (74.3F) was recorded in Gravesend, Kent, surpassing the previous record of 20.0C. Other parts of the south of England and the north coasts of Wales and Norfolk also broke the 20C mark. The previous record was set in Dartford, Kent, in 1968 and was matched in north-eastern parts of Greater London in 1989…”

Photo credit above: “The sun rises above a graveyard in Normanton, West Yorkshire on the UK’s warmest recorded Halloween.” Credit”: Michiko Smith.
These Maps of California’s Water Shortage are Terrifying. Mother Jones has the story – here’s an excerpt: “…The maps come from a new paper in Nature Climate Change by NASA water scientist James Famiglietti. “California’s Sacramento and San Joaquin river basins have lost roughly 15 cubic kilometers of total water per year since 2011,” he writes. That’s “more water than all 38 million Californians use for domestic and municipal supplies annually—over half of which is due to groundwater pumping in the Central Valley.” Famiglietti uses satellite data to measure how much water people are sucking out of the globe’s aquifers, and summarized his research in his new paper…”

Image credit above: “Images by J.T. Reager, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, from “The Global Groundwater Crisis,” Nature Climate Change, November 2014, by James S. Famiglietti.”
The Global Groundwater Crisis. Famiglietti’s research referenced above is available at nature.com.
Think Progress has a slightly different perspective on groundwater aquifer depletion here.
Why The U.S. Has Fallen Behind In Internet Speed and Affordability. Where are the broadband disruptors? Because, according to this article at The New York Times, America’s internet providers are providing substandard speeds at inflated prices; here’s an excerpt: “…Downloading a high-definition movie takes about seven seconds in Seoul, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Zurich, Bucharest and Paris, and people pay as little as $30 a month for that connection. In Los Angeles, New York and Washington, downloading the same movie takes 1.4 minutes for people with the fastest Internet available, and they pay $300 a month for the privilege, according to The Cost of Connectivity, a report published Thursday by the New America Foundation’s Open Technology Institute…” (Graphic above: Mikey Burton).
London Police Raise Privacy Hackles With Gang Violence Software. Is Minority Report coming true; being able to predict crimes in advance. It sounds like science fiction, but we may be one step closer, according to this story at Engadget; here’s a clip: “London’s Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) has completed a 20-week study in a bid to more accurately predict whether specific gang members are likely to commit violence. The software, developed by Accenture, pulls data together from systems already used by the MPS and runs it through an analytics engine…”
There’s a Virus Living In Your Throat That Could Sap Your Brain Power. That’s my excuse and I’m sticking to it. More details from Healthline News: “…Traces of chlorovirus ATCV-1, commonly found in freshwater lakes, turned up in the throat swabs of more than 40 percent of the participants in the study. Volunteers who had traces of the virus living in their throats performed slightly worse on tests of cognitive function than those who did not, even though there were no differences in education level or age that would account for the lower scores.…”
Couple With 12 Sons Hoping Lucky 13 Will Be A Girl. Can you even imagine…? Here’s a clip from Huffington Post: “Kateri and Jay Schwandt, the Michigan couple who have 12 sons, are expecting another child. Will baby number 13 mark the end of their all-boy streak? The couple says they’re not holding their breath. “I just don’t think it’s in the cards,” Jay told WXMI recently of their daughter-bearing odds…”

TODAY: Cold start. Sunny & windy. Winds: SE 10-20+ High: 44
SATURDAY NIGHT: Clear and chilly. Low: 33
SUNDAY: Partly sunny, breezy and milder. High: 54
MONDAY: Clouds, period of PM rain. Wake-up: 40. High: 53
TUESDAY: Intervals of sun, fresh breeze. Wake-up: 38. High: 49
WEDNESDAY: Clipper arrives, few showers. Wake-up: 41. High: 53
THURSDAY: Sunny start, increase in PM clouds. Wake-up: 35. High: 50
FRIDAY: Breezy, stray shower late. Wake-up: 38. High: 52

Climate Stories…

Hagel: “Climate Change Presents Security Issues” for U.S. TheHill has the story – here’s an excerpt: “…When asked if people would be more responsive to climate science because the military is, Hagel agreed that the Pentagon is taken more seriously, and its work on climate change would likely be received well. “There is more of an awareness and an edge put on an issue when it comes to the Pentagon,” Hagel said.  “Because the military and Pentagon has maybe — at least perceived by other people — a more serious look at the world.”
The Weather Channel’s Climate Challenge. Now anyone with a computer (or window) can pretend to be a climate scientist! Founder and meteorologist John Coleman still believes that climate change is a hoax. The channel he helped to launch respectfully disagrees. Here’s a clip from The Atlantic: “…John Coleman, a retired television meteorologist and founder of The Weather Channel, appeared on Fox News on Monday and claimed that he does not believe in climate change. “Well, there are 9,000 Ph.D.s and 31 scientists who have signed a petition that says [carbon dioxide] is not a significant greenhouse gas. Oh it’s a teeny, itsy-bitsy greenhouse gas, but it’s not in any way significant,” said Coleman. “And we are sure of it. It’s not like something I just made up or just thought of. I’ve studied and studied and studied...”

* The Weather Channel’s official Position Statement on climate change is here.
Climate Change Impacts on NASA Facilities. Here’s an excerpt from a report released by NASA: “The impacts of a changing climate are affecting NASA’s properties and operations. In response, NASA is implementing policy addressing climate change adaptation: Apply NASA’s scientific expertise and products to incorporate climate information into its decision making and planning; create innovative, sustainable, and flexible solutions; and share best practices, in order to create climate-resilient NASA Centers…”
38 Federal Agencies Reveal Their Vulnerabilities to Climage Change – And What They’re Doing About It. Here’s a clip from a story at The Washington Post: “…In sum, the reports represent over a thousand pages of climate change threat assessment and sustainability planning by a vast federal complex that collectively operates 360,000 buildings, maintains 650,000 vehicles and spends $25 billion on energy costs per year. In many cases, the vulnerabilities revealed are stark. The Department of Agriculture, for instance, sees “the potential for up to 100 percent increase in the number of acres burned annually by 2050″ by wildfires, according to its new adaptation report…”
Why Republicans Keep Telling Everyone They’re Not Scientists. They’re not economists either, but the last time I checked many of them were voting on economic policy. Here’s an excerpt from The New York Times: “…It’s got to be the dumbest answer I’ve ever heard,” said Michael McKenna, a Republican energy lobbyist who has advised House Republicans and conservative political advocacy groups on energy and climate change messaging. “Using that logic would disqualify politicians from voting on anything. Most politicians aren’t scientists, but they vote on science policy. They have opinions on Ebola, but they’re not epidemiologists. They shape highway and infrastructure laws, but they’re not engineers….”

0

A Chilling Halloween

49 F. high in the Twin Cities Thursday.
51 F. average high on October 30.
50 F. high temperature on October 30, 2013.

Chilling

My very own, personal Halloween Nightmare? Predicting 4 to 8 inches of snow, only to wind up with closer to 30. That happened in 1991 – the remarkable “Halloween Superstorm” – which broke multiple records.

My personal paranoia peaks when weather stalls – that’s when bad things often unfold. Usually weather is progressive, systems move along at 10-30 mph, depending on the time of year. In late October, 1991 a storm stalled off the coast of New England, the “Perfect Storm” popularized in Sebastian Junger’s book and subsequent movie. That stalled storm caused a deepening storm over Minnesota to stall over Lake Superior, prolonging our snow an extra 2 days, resulting in jaw-dropping snowfall amounts.

According to the Minnesota DNR there have been only six Halloweens with measurable snow since 1871. We won’t add to that list today. Expect clear skies with diminishing winds – temperatures falling through the 30s by late afternoon. We’ve seen worse.

No big storms (of any flavor) are brewing into the second week of November. A windy weekend gives way to a few days in the 50s next week. Not exactly a warm front, but considering we could be mired in hip-deep drifts I won’t complain.
* Thanks to Tom Oszman at TC Media Now for archiving TV broadcast footage from KARE-11, WCCO and KSTP, giving a glimpse of how all 3 stations covered the 1991 Halloween Superstorm. Nice hat Paul. What were you thinking?
A Storm For The Ages. Check out the snowfall amounts from the 1991 Halloween storm; as much as 3 feet along Lake Superior’s North Shore, but 28″ amounts into the Twin Cities metro. Map courtesy of the DNR and Minnesota State Climate Office.
Halloween Climatology In The Twin Cities. Here’s an excerpt of a detailed look at Halloween weather over the years in the metro area, courtesy of the Minnesota DNR: “…Measurable precipitation has occurred on Halloween only 26% of the time in the Twin Cities, or 37 times out of 141 years. The most rain recorded was in 1979 with .78 inches. In 1991 .85 inches of precipitation fell, which was snow. In spite of the 1991 Halloween Blizzard, measurable snow on Halloween is about as rare as getting a full sized candy bar in your trick or treat bag. Since 1872 there’s been enough snow to measure only six times: .6″ in 1884, .2″ in 1885, 1.4″ in 1932, .4″ in 1954, .5″ in 1995 and of course 8.2 inches with the Halloween Blizzard of 1991…”
Not So Fast Polar Vortex! Why This Winter Might Not Be So Brutal After All. Note to self: don’t bet the farm based on a 5 month forecast. Here’s an excerpt from a story at Salon that does a good job summing up what we know, and what we are pretending to know about the winter to come: “…Sobel says that despite the headlines, it’s doubtful we will be seeing a winter as cold as last winter was in the eastern U.S. “Last winter was very extreme by historical standards, so it is improbable in any year,” says Sobel. “No information currently available (including the state of El Niño), or that will be available ahead of time, is strong enough to change that. It’s not impossible that this winter will be as cold or colder than last, it’s just very unlikely.”
The U.S. Is Losing The Battle To Predict The Next Hurricane Sandy. Have we closed the gap with ECMWF? Not yet, explains meteorologist Andrew Freedman at Mashable; here’s an excerpt: “…The storm shined a spotlight on the superiority of a computer model run by a European weather center, known as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), which, more than a week in advance, pinpointed Sandy’s infamous left hook track directly into New Jersey. Now, two years after that monstrous storm, the same computing gap remains — in some cases growing even wider. In addition, the Weather Service is trying to shore up even more basic elements of its infrastructure, like satellites and computer networks. These issues raise the question of whether the agency is ready to face another Sandy…”
2 Years After Sandy U.S. Disaster Policy Is Still A Disaster. What have we learned from Sandy – are we better prepared for the next, inevitable superstorm? Here’s the intro to a story at Huffington Post: “Two years ago, Superstorm Sandy devastated the northeastern United States, killing more than 70 people, causing $60 billion in damage and exposing major gaps in federal disaster preparedness and response. But there has been little movement in Congress to change policies to prepare the country for future disasters. One thing Congress did was approve billions in aid for storm-struck areas — but not until nearly three months after Sandy, on Jan. 28, 2013. And that package has been criticized in some corners for being both too slow and for including too few directives on rebuilding to make communities more resilient in future storms…”
Hurricane Sandy’s Lesson: Resilience Isn’t Enough. Here’s a clip from a post at the Harvard Business Review that caught my eye: “…Building resilience and adaptability are necessary actions and great to see. But there is more than a hint of a defensive posture here – we’re being reactive. Adaptation is critical, but as a sole strategy, it’s kind of silly and potentially devastating. We can build some walls around lower Manhattan but where will the water go? I don’t think New Jersey will appreciate the extra dose of storm surge. And how high a wall can we even build? If we continue with business as usual and think we’ll just adapt, we will be sorely disappointed…” (File photo: AP).

Hoboken Oceanographer Dreams of Slowing Hurricanes Before Landfall. There are some practical considerations here, including what 30-50 foot seas might do the pumps required, but under the headline of vetting all ideas, here’s an interesting one – an excerpt courtesy of NBC New York: “…His plan is to slow down a hurricane by deploying hundreds of thousands of floating tubular pumps — directly in the path of an approaching storm. Each pump would be upwards of a thousand feet long, using the kinetic energy of undulating waves to draw cold water from the depths of the ocean all the way to the surface. By cooling the surface water just two degrees, Blumberg estimates a storm could be reduced from a category-3 to a category-1 designation. From a category-5 to a category-3 designation…” (Hurricane Igor file: NASA).

Study Says Upgrading Infrastructure Could Reduce Flood Damage. Phys.org has the article which includes this interesting nugget: “…From 1980 to 2007, about 90 percent of all global disasters were caused by flooding either by rain, tsunami, hurricane or some other natural event. At the same time, the American Society of Civil Engineer’s 2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure gave the country a dismal D+. The group said $3.6 trillion was needed by 2020 to address the most serious problems…”

File photo credit: Virginia Department of Transportation.
Version 3.0 of Aeromobile Flying Car Unveiled. Where’s my flying car?!! Another step closer to reality? Here’s a clip from Gizmag: “It may still sound like the stuff of science fiction, but the AeroMobil flying car is close to a final design. The AeroMobil 3.0 prototype was premiered today at the Pioneers Festival in Vienna. The roadster-cum-light-aircraft is being tested to refine final performance and features...”
TODAY: Chilliest Halloween since 2006. Sunny and colder than average. Winds: N 5-10. High: near 40
TONIGHT: Clear, light winds. Low: 25
SATURDAY: Hard freeze early. Partly sunny, windy. High: 44
SUNDAY: Plenty of sun, stiff breeze. Wake-up: 35. High: 51
MONDAY: More clouds, stray shower possible. Wake-up: 40. High: 55
TUESDAY: Partly sunny and cooler. Wake-up: 38. High: 48
WEDNESDAY: Clouds increase, showers north. Wake-up: 41. High: 57
THURSDAY: Sunny and brisk. Less wind. Wake-up: 37. High: 46

Overall, the researchers revealed a much wider problem.
From 1980 to 2007, about 90 percent of all global disasters were caused by flooding either by rain, tsunami, hurricane or some other natural event.
At the same time, the American Society of Civil Engineer’s 2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure gave the country a dismal D+. The group said $3.6 trillion was needed by 2020 to address the most serious problems.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-10-infrastructure.html#jCp

Climate Stories…

Get Off The Beach? Hell No. Why Shore People Don’t Get Climate People. Bloomberg has an interesting article about sea level rise and denial; here’s an excerpt: “…Yet adapt they must. An overheating planet is melting glaciers, raising sea levels and threatening cities from Mumbai to Guangzhou. Half the world already lives within 60 kilometers (37 miles) of the sea, according to the United Nations. Waters creeped up an average 3.2 millimeters a year between 1993 and 2009; sea levels may rise by between 26 centimeters (10 inches) and 82 centimeters this century, the UN estimates...”
Fox News’ Parent Company Is Really Worried About Global Warming. Mother Jones has the curious details; here’s a clip: “…But Fox’s parent company, 21st Century Fox, sees things differently. Earlier this month, a London-based organization called CDP released hundreds of questionnaires it collected from corporations—including 21st Century Fox—that had agreed to disclose their greenhouse gas emissions and outline the risks global warming could pose to their business. In its submission to CDP, 21st Century Fox noted that climate change “may increase the frequency and power of tropical cyclones” and that the resulting storms could hurt its bottom line. And the company cited Sandy as a prime example…”
Bangladesh Leads 32 Nations Hit By Extreme Climate Risk. Bloomberg has the story; here’s the introduction: “Bangladesh, Sierra Leone and South Sudan led a ranking of countries facing extreme risks as a result of climate change, exacerbating the chances of civil conflict, according to a study by U.K. researcher Maplecroft. A total of 32 countries out of 196 surveyed face that level of threat, the Bath, England-based analyst said today in an e-mailed statement. Nigeria, Chad, Haiti, Ethiopia, the Philippines, the Central African Republic and Eritrea rounded out 10 most at risk…”

* The report referenced in the Bloomberg article above is available at maplecroft.com.
An Ill Wind Blows in Antarctica, Threatens Global Flooding. What’s happening in Antarctica, and why should people living within a few feet of sea level be paying attention? Here’s an excerpt from Climate Central: “…The Southern Ocean’s legendary winds have been blowing more fiercely and in a more poleward direction since the 1950s. Temperature observations are sparse around the hostile continent, but scientists recently modeled the ocean current knock-on effects of these wind changes, which have been caused by ozone thinning and by the buildup of greenhouse gases. The scientists were blown away by the vicious climate change feedback that they unearthed…”

Photo credit: “Antarctic tempest.” Credit: Eli Duke/flickr.
Superstorm Sandy Anniversary: “It’s (Still) Global Warming, Stupid” A higher sea level, more water vapor, warmer sea surface temperatures and a highly unusual tropical track for late October – a warming climate made Sandy worse. Here’s an excerpt from Think Progress: “…So we have nearly doubled the chances for a Sandy-type storm surge with just the modest several-inch sea level rise we have caused to date with carbon pollution. This study points out future Sandy-level storm surges will result from weaker storms than Sandy as sea levels rise. The NOAA study has an “intermediate high scenario” of 2 to 4 feet of sea level rise by 2100 and a “High scenario,” where sea level rises 4 to 7 feet by 2100…”
What Caused The “Pause” in Global Warming? Air temperatures have leveled off; additional heat being pumped into the oceans, according to climate scientist Kevin Trenberth. Here’s an excerpt of his explanation at The Conversation: “…These changes in the atmosphere cause changes in the ocean and have led to heat being stored deeper than 700m in the ocean. while heat has also been carried down deeper in the subtropical Pacific, away from the surface.  The largest region of the planet that has not warmed in the 2000s is the eastern half of the Pacific Ocean. The planet is warming, but heat is effectively being dumped deeper in the ocean…”

Graphic credit above: “Global mean surface temperatures as anomalies relative to 1900-99, plotted with linear trends for 1970-2013 (blue) and 1998-2013 (red), (from Trenberth et al. 2014).” Trenberth et al (2014) Nature Climate Change

0

Chilliest Halloween Since 2006

43 F. high in the Twin Cities Wednesday.

52 F. average high on October 29.

42 F. high on October 29, 2013.

October 29 in Minnesota Weather History. Source: MPX National Weather Service:

1951: A early snow storm dropped as much as 8 inches of snowfall in north central Minnesota. Mora had 8 inches, while Long Prairie received 6 inches. Glenwood, Little Falls, Morris, and New London all had 5 inches of new snow. Meanwhile, surrounding areas received a couple of inches.
1936: Gale dust storm causes damage in Central Minnesota. Heavy wind damage is reported in Stearns County.

Climate Resilience

Why can’t we put more people to work on badly-needed infrastructure upgrades, with increasing climate volatility and weather extremes in mind? The American Society of Civil Engineers gave the USA’s infrastructure a D+ in a 2013 report card.

Meanwhile a recent study in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers says that from 1980 to 2007 90 percent of all global disasters were triggered by flooding; either by heavy rain, hurricane, tsunami or some other natural event.

The frequency of extreme flooding is rising, especially Midwest to New England. The rain is falling harder, washing out more roads and bridges in the process. There has to be a smarter way to rebuild America’s aging roads and bridges.

A reinforcing cold front sparks a few sprinkles early. A cold north wind kicks in by tonight and we may not climb out of the 30s tomorrow as winds slowly ease under the center of high pressure. A chilly Halloween but nothing wet or flaky falling from the sky, and winds will be light – no chill factor.

We just get a glancing blow of cold air; the main event sparks lake effect snow showers over the Great Lakes and a big nor’easter, which may remain just offshore.

Plenty of weather drama on either coast, but I still see a mild, dry bias across the central USA into early, possibly mid November. The ECMWF is hinting at 60s, even an outside shot at 70F, one week from Saturday.
Halloween Climatology for the Twin Cities:
1990 70 38 0 1991 32 28 0.85 1992 44 38 0.03 1993 38 26 0 1994 54 29 0 1995 40 33 0.11 1996 32 16 Tr 1997 61 32 0.35 1998 47 44 0 1999 68 41 0 2000 71 46 0 2001 61 49 0 2002 34 24 0 2003 40 32 0 2004 44 40 Tr 2005 50 38 Tr 2006 36 24 0 2007 62 39 Tr 2008 62 41 0 2009 44 35 0.01 2010 49 30 0 2011 50 33 0 2012 52 25 0 2013 50 40 Tr Chilliest Halloween Since 2006? Data from the Minnesota DNR shows highs, lows and precipitation on Halloween since 1990. Assuming a high in the upper 30s to near 40F on Friday it will be the coolest Halloween since 2006.
A Vortex of Relative Warmth. Temperature anomalies show unusually mild air over far northern Canada and much of the Arctic region, where temperatures yesterday were nearly 3.5F warmer than average. We will see cold and snow in the coming months (no kidding Paul!) but Old Man Winter doesn’t appear to be in any great hurry this year.

Image credit: obtained using Climate Reanalyzer (http://cci-reanalyzer.org), Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, USA.
Not So Fast Polar Vortex! Why This Winter Might Not Be So Brutal After All. Note to self: don’t bet the farm based on a 5 month forecast. Here’s an excerpt from a story at Salon that does a good job summing up what we know, and what we are pretending to know about the winter to come: “…Sobel says that despite the headlines, it’s doubtful we will be seeing a winter as cold as last winter was in the eastern U.S. “Last winter was very extreme by historical standards, so it is improbable in any year,” says Sobel. “No information currently available (including the state of El Niño), or that will be available ahead of time, is strong enough to change that. It’s not impossible that this winter will be as cold or colder than last, it’s just very unlikely.”
Superstorm Sandy Anniversary: Remembering Hurricane Sandy 2 Years Later. Here’s an excerpt of a good summary of Sandy from weather.com: “…As the animation above shows, before Sandy even made landfall, tropical storm force winds extended outward in diameter some 943 miles from southwest to northeast, the biggest circulation of any tropical system on record. The sheer size of the storm played an important role in the devastation Sandy dealt to the East Coast. Among the many factor that influence storm surge, size matters, because as the National Hurricane Center notes, bigger storms impact a greater area of the ocean over a longer period of time than smaller storms, thereby enabling a large storm to push more ocean water ashore…”
Hurricane Sandy’s Lesson: Resilience Isn’t Enough. Here’s a clip from a post at the Harvard Business Review that caught my eye: “…Building resilience and adaptability are necessary actions and great to see. But there is more than a hint of a defensive posture here – we’re being reactive. Adaptation is critical, but as a sole strategy, it’s kind of silly and potentially devastating. We can build some walls around lower Manhattan but where will the water go? I don’t think New Jersey will appreciate the extra dose of storm surge. And how high a wall can we even build? If we continue with business as usual and think we’ll just adapt, we will be sorely disappointed…” (File photo: AP).

Hoboken Oceanographer Dreams of Slowing Hurricanes Before Landfall. There are some practical considerations here, including what 30-50 foot seas might do the pumps required, but under the headline of vetting all ideas, here’s an interesting one – an excerpt courtesy of NBC New York: “…His plan is to slow down a hurricane by deploying hundreds of thousands of floating tubular pumps — directly in the path of an approaching storm. Each pump would be upwards of a thousand feet long, using the kinetic energy of undulating waves to draw cold water from the depths of the ocean all the way to the surface. By cooling the surface water just two degrees, Blumberg estimates a storm could be reduced from a category-3 to a category-1 designation. From a category-5 to a category-3 designation…” (Hurricane Igor file: NASA).

Study Says Upgrading Infrastructure Could Reduce Flood Damage. Phys.org has the article which includes this interesting nugget: “…From 1980 to 2007, about 90 percent of all global disasters were caused by flooding either by rain, tsunami, hurricane or some other natural event. At the same time, the American Society of Civil Engineer’s 2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure gave the country a dismal D+. The group said $3.6 trillion was needed by 2020 to address the most serious problems…”

File photo credit: Virginia Department of Transportation.

Overall, the researchers revealed a much wider problem.
From 1980 to 2007, about 90 percent of all global disasters were caused by flooding either by rain, tsunami, hurricane or some other natural event.
At the same time, the American Society of Civil Engineer’s 2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure gave the country a dismal D+. The group said $3.6 trillion was needed by 2020 to address the most serious problems.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-10-infrastructure.html#jCp

Cigarette Plant Will Be Turned Into A Factory for Solar and Wind Farm Batteries. Think Progress has the story; here’s an excerpt: “Deep in tobacco country, the once booming Phillip Morris cigarette plant in Concord, North Carolina has been reborn into a facility that churns out batteries for solar and wind farms. Swiss startup battery manufacturer Alevo plans to open up the 3.5 million square-foot plant Tuesday, which will produce utility-sized batteries to store electricity harvested from wind and solar plants, according to Fortune…”

File photo: Shutterstock.
Home Of The Brave? Why is there a question mark at the end of the first stanza of America’s National Anthem? Gizmodo takes a look; here’s an excerpt: “Everybody knows that “The Star-Spangled Banner” boldly proclaims that our flag flies over the land of the free and the home of the brave. But in Francis Scott Key’s original 1814 manuscript for our national anthem, there are surprisingly more question marks than you might guess — including after the phrase “home of the brave?…”

Here’s What It’s Like To Be A Woman Walking Through The Streets of New York. 100 catcalls in 10 hours? The Daily Dot takes a look at a video that’s gone viral: “…A new PSA from Rob Bliss and Hollaback exposes a close look at the catcalling and street harassment many women go through daily. With a GoPro camera strapped to his backpack, he walked in front of Shoshana B. Roberts, who volunteered for the project, as she silently walked around New York City for 10 hours. In the process, she had more than 100 instances of verbal street harassment—not including winks and whistles—from people of all backgrounds…”

Europeans Recall Fireball Whiskey Over A Sweetener Also Used in Antifreeze. The Daily Beast has the details; here’s a clip: “Bottles of Fireball whiskey, the insanely popular cinnamon-flavored frathouse favorite, are being recalled in some European countries—because it’s got too much of a chemical used in antifreeze (among other things) inside. Late last week, the whiskey’s European bottler informed the makers of Fireball that they were out of compliance with European regulations…”
TODAY: Mostly cloudy, passing shower. Winds: NW 15-25 High: 47
THURSDAY NIGHT: Clearing, still breezy. Low: 28
HALLOWEEN: Clear and chilly. Light winds. High: 39
SATURDAY: Hard Freeze early. Sunny, becoming breezy. Wake-up: 25. High: 43
SUNDAY: Partly sunny, stiff wind. Wake-up: 31. High: 50
MONDAY: More clouds, stray shower? Wake-up: 38. High: 55
TUESDAY: Partly sunny and cooler. Wake-up: 35. High: 49
WEDNESDAY: Sunny start, late shower. Wake-up: 36. High: 53

Climate Stories…

Superstorm Sandy Anniversary: “It’s (Still) Global Warming, Stupid” A higher sea level, more water vapor, warmer sea surface temperatures and a highly unusual tropical track for late October – a warming climate made Sandy worse. Here’s an excerpt from Think Progress: “…So we have nearly doubled the chances for a Sandy-type storm surge with just the modest several-inch sea level rise we have caused to date with carbon pollution. This study points out future Sandy-level storm surges will result from weaker storms than Sandy as sea levels rise. The NOAA study has an “intermediate high scenario” of 2 to 4 feet of sea level rise by 2100 and a “High scenario,” where sea level rises 4 to 7 feet by 2100…”
What Caused The “Pause” in Global Warming? Air temperatures have leveled off; additional heat being pumped into the oceans, according to climate scientist Kevin Trenberth. Here’s an excerpt of his explanation at The Conversation: “…These changes in the atmosphere cause changes in the ocean and have led to heat being stored deeper than 700m in the ocean. while heat has also been carried down deeper in the subtropical Pacific, away from the surface.  The largest region of the planet that has not warmed in the 2000s is the eastern half of the Pacific Ocean. The planet is warming, but heat is effectively being dumped deeper in the ocean…”

Graphic credit above: “Global mean surface temperatures as anomalies relative to 1900-99, plotted with linear trends for 1970-2013 (blue) and 1998-2013 (red), (from Trenberth et al. 2014).” Trenberth et al (2014) Nature Climate Change .
Climate Depression Is For Real. Just Ask a Scientist. A story in Grist argues that climate scientists are human too, and many of them are trying to cope with the implications of their own research. Here’s a clip: “…Parmesan certainly isn’t the first to experience some sort of climate-change blues. From depression to substance abuse to suicide and post-traumatic stress disorder, growing bodies of research in the relatively new field of psychology of global warming suggest that climate change will take a pretty heavy toll on the human psyche as storms become more destructive and droughts more prolonged. For your everyday environmentalist, the emotional stress suffered by a rapidly changing Earth can result in some pretty substantial anxieties….”
With Storms Intensifying, Milwaukee Braces for Bigger Floods. The Daily Climate takes a look at how a more volatile climate is impacting Milwaukee; here’s a clip: “...Milwaukee is emblematic of how climate change is forcing the hand of sanitation departments in the Midwest. More frequent, intense storms threaten aging systems, making repairs, upgrades and innovative solutions more urgent. Climate change “keeps me up at night,” said Kevin Shafer, executive director of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. “Before, we had a design criteria, and Mother Nature followed a historic trend. Now the historic trend is thrown out of whack.” The Midwest is already seeing more frequent and intense storms, with more precipitation on the way, said Don Wuebbles, a professor of atmospheric science at the University of Illinois and member of the scientific team behind the 2014 U.S. National Climate Assessment. Eight of the 10 wettest years for daily precipitation in the upper Midwest have happened since 1978…”
The Varieties of Denialism. This subject obviously extends well beyond climate science. Here’s the intro to a story by Massimo Pigliucci at Scientia Salon: “I have just come back from a stimulating conference at Clark University about Manufacturing Denial,” which brought together scholars from wildly divergent disciplines — from genocide studies to political science to philosophy — to explore the idea that “denialism” may be a sufficiently coherent phenomenon underlying the willful disregard of factual evidence by ideologically motivated groups or individuals….”

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Chilly Spell into Halloween – First Hard Freeze by Saturday

49 F. high temperature in the Twin Cities Tuesday.

52 F. average high on October 28

44 F. high on October 28, 2013.

October 28 in Minnesota Weather History. Source: Twin Cities National Weather Service:

2004: Exceptionally muggy for October. Dew points surged into the middle to upper 60′s over central and southern Minnesota. Ladybugs are extremely active.
1955: Early snow with 2.2 inches in the Twin Cities.
1905: Snowfall accumulated in south central Minnesota. Snow totals included 7 inches at Fairmont, 6 inches at Farmington, 4.5 inches at Montevideo, 4 inches at Faribault, and 3 inches at New London.

Weather PTSD

Today marks the two year anniversary of Sandy, an odd mash-up of ex-hurricane and nor’easter, three times the size of Katrina. Sandy swamped lower Manhattan under 14 feet of water, rearranging the coastline of New Jersey, leaving behind $65 billion in damage. Sea level in New York Harbor is 17 inches higher than it was in the 1700s. Between that, high tide and a full moon the die was cast for a record storm surge.

A new study at Monmouth University suggests as many 20 percent of homeowners impacted by Sandy’s wind and waves are still suffering emotional stress, a weather-related version of Post-traumatic stress disorder. I see this in tornado and flood survivors as well: anxiety, depression, sleep disorders and other symptoms of a severe trauma.

No weather drama close to home, just a return to scrappy clouds and a whiff of wind chill. A reinforcing cold front keeps highs close to 40F on Halloween, but skies should be clear, winds light for candy cravings.

We go from hard freeze Saturday morning to a gusty south wind over the weekend – 50s return by Sunday; the pattern not ripe for major storms looking out into mid-November.No more 60s in sight. No Halloween blizzards either.

Speaking of trauma.

A visualization comparing GPS data from New York City taxis in the days surrounding Hurricane Sandy with the same data under normal traffic conditions

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-10-taxi-gps-hurricane-sandy-effect.html#jCp

A visualization comparing GPS data from New York City taxis in the days surrounding Hurricane Sandy with the same data under normal traffic conditions

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-10-taxi-gps-hurricane-sandy-effect.html#jCp

The largest Atlantic hurricane on record, Hurricane Sandy offered a chance for researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to try out a new computational method they developed that promises to help municipalities quantify the resilience of their transportation systems to extreme events using only GPS data from taxis.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-10-taxi-gps-hurricane-sandy-effect.html#jCp

Colder Winters in Asia, Europe Linked to Sea Ice Decline. Climate Central examines how reduced sea ice from rapid arctic warming might impact the frequency of cold weather blocking patterns; here’s a clip: “..The model simulations suggest that the reduced sea ice leads to greater absorption of incoming solar heat by open ocean waters, which leads to pressure changes in the atmosphere. Specifically, it seems to intensify a feature called the Siberian High over Europe and Asia, and leads to more of what are called blocking patterns, where the atmosphere effectively gets stuck in a particular pattern for days or even weeks. In the case of the study, the feature leads to more breakouts of Arctic air over the combined Europe-Asia landmass…”

Google’s Dominance in Search Is Nearing Its Peak. Quartz has the story; here’s the introduction: “Google is stumbling. Earlier this month the company disappointed shareholders with underwhelming quarterly results. The amount of money it makes each time somebody clicks on an ad has steadily fallen for the past three years. In response, according to Re/Code, Google CEO Larry Page has appointed insider Sundar Pichai to lead the bulk of Google’s product lines, freeing Page to focus on the “bigger picture...”

TODAY: Partly sunny and brisk. Winds: West 10. High: 48
WEDNESDAY NIGHT: Partly cloudy. Low: 39
THURSDAY: Mostly cloudy, turning colder late. High: near 50, then falling
FRIDAY: Clear and chilly. Chilling too. Wake-up: 29. High: near 40
SATURDAY: Hard freeze, then sunny & windy. Wake-up: 25. High: 46
SUNDAY: Intervals of sun, milder breeze. Wake-up: 34. High: 53
MONDAY: Some sun, slightly cooler. Wake-up: 42. High: 50
TUESDAY: Partly sunny, cooler than average. Wake-up: 38. High: 48

Climate Stories…

With Storms Intensifying, Milwaukee Braces for Bigger Floods. The Daily Climate takes a look at how a more volatile climate is impacting Milwaukee; here’s a clip: “...Milwaukee is emblematic of how climate change is forcing the hand of sanitation departments in the Midwest. More frequent, intense storms threaten aging systems, making repairs, upgrades and innovative solutions more urgent. Climate change “keeps me up at night,” said Kevin Shafer, executive director of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. “Before, we had a design criteria, and Mother Nature followed a historic trend. Now the historic trend is thrown out of whack.” The Midwest is already seeing more frequent and intense storms, with more precipitation on the way, said Don Wuebbles, a professor of atmospheric science at the University of Illinois and member of the scientific team behind the 2014 U.S. National Climate Assessment. Eight of the 10 wettest years for daily precipitation in the upper Midwest have happened since 1978…”
A Chronicler of Warnings Denied. The New York Times has an interview with “Merchants of Doubt” author Naomi Oreskes; here’s an excerpt: “…I did some digging of my own. I learned that my critic was among an informal group of physicists who’d risen to prominence in weapons and rocketry during the Cold War. Though none were climatologists, they became key figures in climate change denial. On the various issues where members of the group had been active — acid rain, ozone depletion and climate change — there appeared to be a playbook drawn from the tobacco wars: Insist that the science is unsettled, attack the researchers whose findings they disliked, demand media coverage for a “balanced” view…”
The Varieties of Denialism. This subject obviously extends well beyond climate science. Here’s the intro to a story by Massimo Pigliucci at Scientia Salon: “I have just come back from a stimulating conference at Clark University about Manufacturing Denial,” which brought together scholars from wildly divergent disciplines — from genocide studies to political science to philosophy — to explore the idea that “denialism” may be a sufficiently coherent phenomenon underlying the willful disregard of factual evidence by ideologically motivated groups or individuals….”
2014 Setting Up As Warmest Year, Worldwide, Since 1880? We started the year in a cold phase (La Nina) and the much-hyped El Nino of 2014 is taking it’s sweet old time ramping up in the Pacific. In spite of that, 2014 is on track to become the warmest year, globally, on record. Here’s an excerpt from desmog.uk: “…These records tie 2014 with 1998 and 2010 for the warmest first nine months on record. The United Nations has pointed out that 13 out of the 14 hottest years recorded have taken place since the turn of the 21st century. In a statement, NOAA said: “If the surface temperature remains elevated at the same level for the remainder of the year, then 2014 will set a new record for the warmest annual average temperature since records began in 1880…”
Boston is Rethinking It’s relationship With The Sea. Canals similar to Amsterdam to let the water IN? It may not be as crazy as it sounds, according to a story at the BBC; here’s an excerpt: “…This is why Boston’s city planners and architects are contemplating the radical idea of turning its most historic district – the elegant 19th Century terraced houses of the Back Bay – into a network of canals. “Much of the model has been how do we keep the water out? Everybody’s afraid of the water,” says Dennis Carlberg, sustainability director at Boston University and co-chair of Boston’s sea-level rise committee. “So we wanted to turn that conversation on its head and say, well what if we let water in? How can we make life better in Boston by bringing water in?….”
Study Provides Deeper Understanding of Climate Change. Much of the excess heat energy from fossil fuel emissions is going into the deep oceans, and we’re not precisely sure how a warming trend in the Pacific will manifest itself in the future: more hurricanes and typhoons, shifts in rainfall patterns and a higher risk of extreme summer heat? Here’s an excerpt of an article at mycentraljersey.com: “…The study shows that changes in heat distribution between the ocean basins is important for understanding future climate change. However, scientists can’t predict precisely what effect the carbon dioxide currently being pulled into the ocean from the atmosphere will have on climate. Still, they argue that since more carbon dioxide has been released in the past 200 years than any recent period in geological history, interactions between carbon dioxide, temperature changes and precipitation, and ocean circulation will result in profound changes...”

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Temperature Correction – Mild Bias into Mid November

67 F. high in the Twin Cities Monday.

53 F. average high on October 27.

58 F. high on October 27, 2013.

2.6″ snow fell on the Twin Cities on October 27, 1919.

Risk of October

Be afraid. When the weather is supernaturally nice for an extended period of time my nervous twitch returns. When will the other shoe (or boot) drop? Patterns usually pivot between pleasure & pain, unless storms stall for extended periods of time (Halloween Blizzard of 1991), or an upper level block interrupts the normal ebb and flow of cold and warm (last winter’s persistent vortex of polar pollution).

One step out the door and you’ll realize – quickly – that it’s still late October. No more 60s until possibly next week as the cool correction we all knew was inevitable arrives. Minnesota only sees a glancing blow of cold air; the real thrust of wind chill and lake effect snow bands will set up from the Great Lakes into New England in time for Halloween.

And nothing too terrifying from a meteorological perspective for Friday: mostly clear skies, light winds and Trick or Treat temperatures near 40F. A hard freeze Saturday morning gives way to strong weekend winds, the result of big temperature swings across the Midwest. A taste of Indian Summer returns next week with more 50s, maybe a day or two above 60F.

Old Man Winter continues to pull his punch into at least mid-November.

An Inevitable Correction. I wouldn’t exactly call it arctic, but it will be more cold front than cool front in the coming days; temperatures stuck in the 40s much of today, Thursday and Halloween before recovering next weekend. I still think we may see another 60-degree high or two next week; a sharp rebound in temperature will turn on 15-25 mph sustained winds by Sunday and Monday.

60-Hour Accumulated Precipitation. The arrival of much colder air sets off showers from the Great Lakes, with a trailing cold front whipping up a few hours of rain from St. Louis and Chicago to Indianapolis and Memphis. Another surge of heavy rain pushes into the Paciic Northwest. 4 km NAM guidance: NOAA and HAMweather.
60-Hour Snowfall Potential. A plowable snowfall is predicted just north of Lake Superior as the next surge of cold air takes aim at New England; a little wet snow mixing in over the Minnesota Arrowhead.
Taxi GPS Data Helps Researchers Study Hurricane Sandy’s Effect on New York City Traffic. Here’s a snippet of an interesting article at phys.org: “…The largest Atlantic hurricane on record, Hurricane Sandy offered a chance for researchers at the Unversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to try out a new computational method they developed that promises to help municipalities quantify the resilience of their transportation systems to extreme events using on GPS data from taxis...

Image credit above: “A visualization comparing GPS data from New York City taxis in the days surrounding Hurricane Sandy with the same data under normal traffic conditions.”

A visualization comparing GPS data from New York City taxis in the days surrounding Hurricane Sandy with the same data under normal traffic conditions

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-10-taxi-gps-hurricane-sandy-effect.html#jCp

A visualization comparing GPS data from New York City taxis in the days surrounding Hurricane Sandy with the same data under normal traffic conditions

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-10-taxi-gps-hurricane-sandy-effect.html#jCp

The largest Atlantic hurricane on record, Hurricane Sandy offered a chance for researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to try out a new computational method they developed that promises to help municipalities quantify the resilience of their transportation systems to extreme events using only GPS data from taxis.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-10-taxi-gps-hurricane-sandy-effect.html#jCp

Colder Winters in Asia, Europe Linked to Sea Ice Decline. Climate Central examines how reduced sea ice from rapid arctic warming might impact the frequency of cold weather blocking patterns; here’s a clip: “..The model simulations suggest that the reduced sea ice leads to greater absorption of incoming solar heat by open ocean waters, which leads to pressure changes in the atmosphere. Specifically, it seems to intensify a feature called the Siberian High over Europe and Asia, and leads to more of what are called blocking patterns, where the atmosphere effectively gets stuck in a particular pattern for days or even weeks. In the case of the study, the feature leads to more breakouts of Arctic air over the combined Europe-Asia landmass…”
ER Doctor: What Scares Me Even More Than Ebola. Will nurses, care-givers and front-line doctors even show up if things get really bad? Dr. Louis Profeta has an Op-Ed at LinkedIn; here’s an excerpt that caught my eye: “…We’ve had years to prepare for this, we’ve hung all our hopes on a vaccine and not nearly enough thought on containment should a vaccine fail. Today’s Ebola is tomorrow’s Spanish flu. We’ve had nearly a hundred years to get ready and the best we can come up with is plastic suits, double gloves, respirators, and masks. The battleground of this problem can’t be in the hospital. It is unwinnable in our emergency rooms…”

To Improve a Memory, Consider Chocolate. This edict will not be hard to implement for most of us. Life is better with (more) chocolate, but this gives you another excuse; here’s an excerpt from The New York Times: “Science edged closer on Sunday to showing that an antioxidant in chocolate appears to improve some memory skills that people lose with age. In a small study in the journal Nature Neuroscience, healthy people, ages 50 to 69, who drank a mixture high in antioxidants called cocoa flavanols for three months performed better on a memory test than people who drank a low-flavanol mixture…”

TODAY: Windy and colder with clouds, showers north. Winds: NW 20. High: 49
TUESDAY NIGHT: Partly cloudy and chilly. Low: 34
WEDNESDAY: Plenty of sun, less wind. High: 48
THURSDAY: Mostly cloudy, risk of a sprinkle. Wake-up: 38. High: 53
FRIDAY: Clear. Chilling. Giant spiders. Wake-up: 31. High: 44
SATURDAY: Hard freeze early. Partly sunny, stiff south wind. Wake-up: 25. High: 48
SUNDAY: Very windy, a bit milder. Wake-up: 37. High: 56
MONDAY: Showers, then clearing. Wake-up: 50. High: 58

* photo credit: Heidi Rusch, Minnetonka.
Climate Stories…

2014 Setting Up As Warmest Year, Worldwide, Since 1880? We started the year in a cold phase (La Nina) and the much-hyped El Nino of 2014 is taking it’s sweet old time ramping up in the Pacific. In spite of that, 2014 is on track to become the warmest year, globally, on record. Here’s an excerpt from desmog.uk: “…These records tie 2014 with 1998 and 2010 for the warmest first nine months on record. The United Nations has pointed out that 13 out of the 14 hottest years recorded have taken place since the turn of the 21st century. In a statement, NOAA said: “If the surface temperature remains elevated at the same level for the remainder of the year, then 2014 will set a new record for the warmest annual average temperature since records began in 1880…”
Boston is Rethinking It’s relationship With The Sea. Canals similar to Amsterdam to let the water IN? It may not be as crazy as it sounds, according to a story at the BBC; here’s an excerpt: “…This is why Boston’s city planners and architects are contemplating the radical idea of turning its most historic district – the elegant 19th Century terraced houses of the Back Bay – into a network of canals. “Much of the model has been how do we keep the water out? Everybody’s afraid of the water,” says Dennis Carlberg, sustainability director at Boston University and co-chair of Boston’s sea-level rise committee. “So we wanted to turn that conversation on its head and say, well what if we let water in? How can we make life better in Boston by bringing water in?….”
Study Provides Deeper Understanding of Climate Change. Much of the excess heat energy from fossil fuel emissions is going into the deep oceans, and we’re not precisely sure how a warming trend in the Pacific will manifest itself in the future: more hurricanes and typhoons, shifts in rainfall patterns and a higher risk of extreme summer heat? Here’s an excerpt of an article at mycentraljersey.com: “…The study shows that changes in heat distribution between the ocean basins is important for understanding future climate change. However, scientists can’t predict precisely what effect the carbon dioxide currently being pulled into the ocean from the atmosphere will have on climate. Still, they argue that since more carbon dioxide has been released in the past 200 years than any recent period in geological history, interactions between carbon dioxide, temperature changes and precipitation, and ocean circulation will result in profound changes...”

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